History of Logic

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History of Logic from Aristotle to Gödel by Raul Corazzon | e-mail: rc@ontology.co


Selected Bibliography on Ancient Islamic Logic and Ontology

Bibliography (Studies in English)

  1. Ahmed, Asaq Q. 2008. "The Jiha/Tropos-Mādda/Hūlē Distinction in Arabic Logic and its Significance for Avicenna’s Modals." In The Unity of Science in the Arabic Tradition: Science, Logic, Epistemology and their Interactions, edited by Rahman, Shahid, Street, Tony and Tahiri, Hassan, 229-254. Dordrecht: Springer.

  2. ———. 2011. "Systematic growth in sustained error: a case study in the dynamism of post-classical Islamic scholarship." In The Islamic Scholarly Tradition. Studies in History, Law, and Thought in Honor of Professor Michael Allan Cook, edited by Ahmed, Asaq Q., Sadeghi, Behnam and Bonner, Michael, 343-378. Leiden: Brill.

  3. ———. 2013. "Logic in the Khayrābādī School of India: A Preliminary Exploration." In Law and Tradition in Classical Islamic Thought: Studies in Honor of Professor Hossein Modarressi, edited by Cock, Michael, Haider, Najam, Rabb, Intisar and Sayeed, Asma, 227-243. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Abstract: "This chapter presents, in an exploratory fashion, the history of Arabo-Islamic logic in India between the tenth/sixteenth and fourteenth/twentieth centuries, with special focus on the formation of the Khayrābādī School in this discipline. Given its

    exploratory nature, the chapter does not promote any thesis that elaborates on the causes behind historical developments; however, it does point out that the study of logic passed through India in four distinct stages via Multān, Delhi, Lahore, the Awadh (generally), and Tonk. The aim of the chapter is simply to chart the trajectory of the scholars and works associated with logical studies in the specified period and region, so as to lay the groundwork for further technical research in Arabo-Islamic logical texts of the subcontinent."

  4. Akrami, Musa. 2017. "From Logic in Islam to Islamic Logic." Logica Universalis no. 11:61-83.

    Abstract: "Speaking of relations between logic and religion in Islamic world may refer to logic in two respects: (1) logic in religious texts, from doctrinal sacred texts such as Qur'an and sayings of the Prophet (as well as Imāms, in Sh'ıism) to the Qur'anic commentaries and the texts related to the principles and fundamentals of jurisprudence, all of which make use of some reasoning to persuade the audiences or to infer the rules and prescripts for religious behavior of the members of religious community; and (2) logic as a discipline that is studied and applied both independently and as a tool for reasoning in (a) schools of Islamic theology (from Ash’arīs to Mu’tazilīs and Shī'īs), (b) systems of Islamic philosophy (from Peripatetics to Illuminationists), and (c) other types of knowledge in medieval Islamic world, all being strongly influenced by religious doctrines of Islam. Accordingly, this paper speaks of (i) the different manifestations of using logical reasoning, particularly analogy, in Qur'anic arguments, e.g. for the existence of God and resurrection after death; (ii) some contradictions or paradoxes reported by different opponents in the verses of Qur'an; (iii) the place of logic in the classification of disciplines and the courses taught at the schools and seminaries; (iv) the influence of the attitudes of different religious sects on logic; (v) the instrumental role of logic for both religious and secular reasonings; (vi) the relation between reason and dogmatic religious doctrines, and, finally, (vii) the reflection of this relation on progress or recession of logic in medieval Islamic world."

  5. ———. 2020. "Logic in Islam and Islamic Logic." In Beyond Faith and Rationality: Essays on Logic, Religion and Philosophy, edited by Silvestre, Ricardo Sousa, Göcke, Benedikt Paul, Béziau, Jean-Yves and Bilimoria, Purushottama, 276-300. Cham (Switzerland): Springer.

  6. Alwishah, Ahmed, and Sanson, David. 2009. "The early arabic liar: the liar paradox in the Islamic world from the mid-ninth to the mid-thirteenth centuries CE." Vivarium no. 47:97-127.

    Abstract: "We describe the earliest occurrences of the Liar Paradox in the Arabic tradition. The early Mutakallimùn claim the Liar Sentence is both true and false; they also associate the Liar with problems concerning plural subjects, which is somewhat puzzling. Abhari (1200-1265) ascribes an unsatisfiable truth condition to the Liar Sentence - as he puts it, its being true is the conjunction of its being true and false - and so concludes that the sentence is not true. Tūsī (1201-1274) argues that self-referential sentences, like the Liar, are not truth-apt, and defends this claim by appealing to a correspondence theory of truth. Translations of the texts are provided as an appendix."

  7. Aoude, Safia. 2011. "Classical logic in Islamic philosophy: Creating dichotomy or catalyst?" Tidsskrift om Islam & Kristendom no. 14:29-38.


    Using classical Greek logic to explain the concept of a metaphor to his readers, the famous Islamic scholar Ibn Sina wrote in his book “Qiyâs”:

    “So and so is beautiful. Everything beautiful is a moon. Therefore so and so is a moon.”

    On the other hand, the equally famous Islamic scholar Imam al-Shafi'i is quoted to have said:

    "People did not become ignorant, nor differed except after their abandonment of the Arabic language and their inclination to the language of Aristoteles!"1

    The words of Ibn Sina and Imam al-Shafi´i present each two opposites; one is using the methodology of classical Aristotelian logic to elaborate a metaphysical Islamic concept, the other one is claiming Aristotelian logic has ruined the basics of Islamic creed by the limitation of its semantics. Obviously, classical logic did play an important role in the development of philosophical ideas among Muslim scholars and philosophers, but there seems to be a dichotomous difference in approach.

    The aim of my paper is to look into the views of some of the well known thinkers in Islamic philosophy, extracting their specific opinions towards Aristotelian classical logic. What use did Muslim philosophers have for Aristotelian logic in the development of their own ideas?" (p. 29)

  8. Arnaldez, Roger. 1991. "Mantik [Logic]." In Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd edition, 442-452. Leiden: Brill.

  9. Azazy, Hany. 2017. "The Genesis of Arabic Logical Activities: From Syriac Rhetoric and Jewish Hermeneutics to āl-Śāfi‘y’s Logical Techniques." Studia Humana no. 6:65-95.

    Abstract: "This paper tries to outline a history of development of informal logic in Semitic languages and especially in Arabic. It tries to explain how the first definite formulation of rules of this logic appeared at āl-Śāfi‘y’ Risāla, a work on ’uswl āl-fiqh or methodology of law. It attempts also to provide new theories and hypotheses about the translation movement in the Arabic and Islamic medieval world."

  10. Bäck, Allan. 2008. "Islamic Logic?" In The Unity of Science in the Arabic Tradition: Science, Logic, Epistemology and their Interactions, edited by Rahman, Shahid, Street, Tony and Tahiri, Hassan, 255-279. Dordrecht: Springer.

    Abstract: "A current ideology has it that different cultural traditions have privileged sources of insight and ways of knowing. Prizing one tradition over another would reek of cultural imperialism. In this vein we have those pushing for a unique status for Islamic philosophy—and no doubt alongside Chinese philosophy, Indian philosophy, African philosophy…. I begin by examining what could be meant by ‘Islamic philosophy’. I argue that embracing a multiculturalism that makes the philosophic enterprise relative to particular cultural traditions ignores a quite important part of the Islamic philosophical tradition itself: the quest for a transcultural, universal objectivity. The major Islamic philosophers embraced this ideal: al-Fārābī and Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna), for instance. They held that some cultures are better than others at attaining philosophical wisdom, and some languages better than others at expressing it. They advocated selecting critically features from the different cultures for constructing a general theory. I illustrate their method by considering their treatment of paronymy and the copula. I end by advocating a return to this Islamic tradition."

  11. ———. 2016. "Demostration and Dialectic in Islamic Philosophy " In The Routledge Companion to Islamic Philosophy, edited by Taylor, Richard C. and López-Farjeat, Luis Xavier, 93-104. New York: Routledge.

  12. Baffioni, Carmela. 2013. "Logic in Islam." In Encyclopedia of Sciences and Religions, edited by Runehov, Anne L. C., Oviedo, Lluis and Azari, Nina P., 1174-1180. Dordrecht: Springer.

  13. Black, Deborah L. 1990. Logic and Aristotle's Rhetoric and Poetics in Medieval Arabic Philosophy. Leiden: Brill.

  14. ———. 1991. "Aristotle's ‘Peri hermeneias’ in Medieval Latin and Arabic Philosophy: Logic and the Linguistic Arts." Canadian Journal of Philosophy no. Supplementary volume 21:25-83.

  15. ———. 1998. "Logic in Islamic philosophy." In Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Craig, Edward, 706-713.

  16. Brumberg-Chaumont, Julie. 2016. "The Legacy of Ancient Logic in the Middle Ages." In The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Logic, edited by Novaes, Catarina Dutilh and Read, Stephen, 19-44. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  17. Brunschvig, Robert. 1970. "Logic and Law in Classical Islam." In Logic in Classical Islamic Culture, edited by von Grunebaum, Gustave E., 9-20. Wiesbaden: Ottto Harassowitz.

  18. Burnett, Charles. 2004. "The Translation of Arabic Works on Logic into Latin in the Middle Ages and Renaissance." In Handbook of the History of Logic, Volume 1: Greek, Indian and Arabic Logic, edited by Gabbay, Dov M. and Woods, John, 597-606. Amsterdam: Elsevier North-Holland.

  19. Calverley, Edwin E. 1933. "al-Abharī's Īsāghūjī fī-l manṭiq." In The Macdonald presentation volume: A Tribute to Duncan Black Macdonald, 75-85. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  20. Chatti, Saloua. 2014. "Syncategoremata in Arabic logic, al-Fārābi and Avicenna." History and Philosophy of Logic no. 35:167-197.

  21. ———. 2019. Arabic Logic from al-Fārābī to Averroes: A Study of the Early Arabic Categorical, Modal, and Hypothetical Syllogistics. Cham (Switzerland: Birkhäuser.

  22. Chejne, Anwar G. 1984. "Ibn Hazm of Cordova on Logic." Journal of the American Oriental Society no. 104:57-72.

  23. Druart, Thérèse-Anne. 2016. "Logic and Language." In The Routledge Companion to Islamic Philosophy, edited by Taylor, Richard C. and López-Farjeat, Luis Xavier, 69-81. New York: Routledge.

  24. Dunlop, Douglas Morton. 1955. "Philosophical Predecessors and Contemporaries of Ibn Bājjah." The Islamic Quarterly no. 2:101-116.

  25. El-Rouayheb, Khaled. 2004. "Sunni Muslim Scholars on the Status of Logic, 1500-1800." Islamic Law and Society no. 11:213-232.

    Abstract: "In the present article, I discuss Goldziher's contention (echoed in more recent literature) that fromt he thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, Sunni Muslim scholars ('ulama') became increasingly hostile to rational sciences such as logic. On the

    basis of discussions and fatāwā by Sunni scholars in the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, I show that this idea is radically mistaken. Mainstream scholars in the Maghrib, Egypt and Turkey considered logic to be not only permissible but actually commendable or even a religious duty incumbent on the Muslim community as a whole (i.e. a farḍ kifāyah). Though there were dissenting voices in the period, such as the Qāḍizādelīs, this seems to have been the mainstream opinion of Sunni scholars until the rise of the Salafiyyah movement in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries."


    Ignáz Goldziher, "Stellung der alten islamischen Orthodoxie zu den antikken Wissenschaften," Abhandlung der Koniglichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 8 (1915): 3-46. In what follows, all references and quotations will be to and from the English translation "The Attitude of Orthodox Islam Toward the Ancient Sciences," in M.L. Swartz (transl. and ed.), Studies on Islam (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981), 185-215.

  26. ———. 2005. " Was There a Revival of Logical Studies in Eighteenth-Century Egypt?" Die Welt des Islams no. 45:1-19.

  27. ———. 2006. "Opening the Gate of Verification: The Forgotten Arab-Islamic Florescence of the 17th Century." International Journal of Middle East Studies no. 38:263-281.

  28. ———. 2009. "Impossible antecedents and their consequences: Some thirteenth-century Arabic discussions." History and Philosophy of Logic:209-225.

    Abstract: "The principle that a necessarily false proposition implies any proposition, and that a necessarily true proposition is implied by any proposition, was apparently first propounded in twelfth century Latin logic, and came to be widely, though not universally, accepted in the fourteenth century. These principles seem never to have been accepted, or even seriously entertained, by Arabic logicians. In the present paper I explore some thirteenth century Arabic discussions of conditionals with impossible antecedents. The Persian-born scholar Afdal al-Dīn al-Khūnajī (d.1248) suggested the novel idea that two contradictory propositions may follow from the same impossible antecedent, and closely related to this point, he suggested that if an antecedent implied a consequent, then it would do so no matter how it was strengthened. These ideas led him, and those who followed him, to reject what has come to be known as ‘Aristotle’s thesis’ that nothing is implied by its own negation. Even these suggestions were widely resisted. Particularly influential were the counter-arguments of Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Tūṣī (d.1274)."

  29. ———. 2010. Relational Syllogisms and the History of Arabic Logic, 900-1900. Leiden: Brill.

  30. ———. 2011. "Logic in the Arabic and Islamic World." In Encyclopedia of Medieval Philosophy. Philosophy Between 500 and 1500, edited by Lagerlund, Henrik, 686-692. Dordrecht Springer.

  31. ———. 2012. "Post-Avicennan Logicians on the Subject Matter of Logic: Some Thirteenth- and Fourteenth-Century Discussions." Arabic Sciences and Philosophy no. 22:69-90.

    Abstract: "In the thirteenth century, the influential logician Afḍal al-Dīn al-Khnajī (d. 1248) departed from the Avicennan view that the subject matter of logic is “second intentions”.

    For al-Khūnajī, the subject matter of logic is “the objects of conception and assent”. His departure elicited intense and sometimes abstruse discussions in the course of subsequent centuries. Prominent supporters of Khūnajī’s view on the subject matter of logic included Kātibī (d. 1277), Ibn Wāṣil (d. 1298) and Taftāzānī (d. 1390). Defenders of Avicenna’s view included Tūsī (d. 1274), Samarqandī (d. 1303) and Quṭb al-Dīn al-Rāzī (d. 1365). This article presents the outline of the development of this discussion down to the end of the fourteenth century and attempts to reconstruct the major arguments of both sides."

  32. ———. 2016. "Does a Proposition Have Three Parts or Four? A Debate in Later Arabic Logic." Oriens no. 44:301-331.

    Abstract: "!The present article traces the controversy on propositions and their parts, intensively discussed by logicians writing in Arabic in the fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. From the beginning of the Arabic logical tradition to the end of the thirteenth century, the dominant view among Arabic logicians was that a categorical proposition consists of three parts: subject, predicate and nexus between them indicated (in most languages) by the copula. A number of influential logicians from the fourteenth century suggested that the parts are strictly four: the subject, the predicate, the nexus between them, and the judgment. This thesis was criticized in the late fifteenth century, most influentially by the Persian scholar Dawānī (d.1502). His criticism and the ensuing discussion came to be intertwined with another controversial issue: can some objects of conception (taṣawwur) also be objects of assent (taṣdīq)?"

  33. ———. 2016. "Arabic Logic after Avicenna." In The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Logic, edited by Novaes, Catarina Dutilh and Read, Stephen, 67-93. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  34. ———. 2019. The Development of Arabic Logic (1200–1800). Basel: Schwabe Verlag.

  35. ———. 2019. "Books on Logic (manṭiq) and Dialectics (jadal)." In Treasures of Knowledge: An Inventory of the Ottoman Palace Library (1502/3–1503/4). Volume I, 891-906. Leiden: Brill.

  36. Feldman, Seymour. 1964. "Rescher on Arabic Logic." Journal of Philosophy no. 61:724-733.

  37. Gabbay, Dov, and Woods, John, eds. 2004. Greek, Indian, and Arabic Logic. Amsterdam: Elsevier North Holland.

    Handbook of the History of Logic, Vol. I.

    See the chapters: Arabic Logic, by Tony Street (pp. 523-596) and The Translation of Arabic Works on logic into Latin in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, by Charles Burnett (pp. 597-605).

  38. Goldziher, Ignaz. 1981. "The Attitude of Orthodox Islam Toward the “Ancient Sciences”." In Studies on Islam, 185-215. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    English translation of Ignáz Goldziher, "Stellung der alten islamischen Orthodoxie zu den antikken Wissenschaften," Abhandlung der Koniglichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 8 (1915): 3-46.

  39. Grunebaum, Gustav Edmund von, ed. 1970. Logic in Classical Islamic Culture. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.

    Giorgio Levi Della Vida Biennial Conference Proceedings.

    Contents: G. E. von Grunebaum: Presentation of Award to First Recipient, Robert Brunschvig 1; G. E. von Grunebaum: Introduction 5; Robert Brunschvig: Logic and Law in Classical Islam 9; Josef van Ess: The Logical Structure of Islamic Theology 21; Muhsin Mahdi: Language and Logic in Classical Islam 51; Seeger A. Bonebakker: Poets and Critics in the Third Century A. H. 85; Abraham L. Udovitch: The “Law Merchant” of the Medieval Islamic World 113; Index 131-142.

  40. Guerrero, Rafael Ramón. 2013. "Aristotle and Ibn Ḥazm. On the Logic of the Taqrīb." In Ibn Ḥazm of Cordoba: The Life and Works of a Controversial Thinker, edited by Adang, Camilla, Fierro, Maribel and Schmidtke, Sabine, 403-416. Leiden: Brill.

  41. Gutas, Dimitri. 1993. "Aspects of Literary Form and Genre in Arabic Logical Works." In Glosses and Commentaries on Aristotelian Logical Texts: the Syriac, Arabic and Medieval Latin Traditions, edited by Burnett, Charles, 29-76. London: The Warburg Institute.

  42. Gyekie, Kwame. 1971. "The Terms "Prima intentio" and "Secunda intentio" in Arabic Logic." Speculum no. 46:32-48.

    "The more passages one examines in the translations from Arabic to Latin and from Arabic to English and other modern languages, the more mistakes one comes across in the translation of the Arabic expression ala al-qasd al awwal (or, 'ala al-qasd al thani). The mistakes stem from the failure to distinguish between two senses of the expression, one an adverb, and the other a famous philosophic concept. Failing to distinguish between the two senses, the translators translated the phrase literally, often with unsatisfactory results. In this paper, I shall indicate a Greek word which was rendered by the Arabic 'la al-qasd al-awwal. I shall refer to some English translations from the Arabic and show how wrong they are. I shall suggest that in Arabic philosophy itself al-Farabi, rather than Avicenna, may have been the origin of the philosophic concepts of "first and second intentions." I shall point out that although these concepts may have been introduced into Latin scholasticism by Raymond Lull, he could not have derived theni from the Logic of al-Ghazali, as has been alleged."

  43. ———. 1972. "The term Istithnā' in Arabic Logic." Journal of the American Oriental Society no. 27:88-92.

  44. ———. 1979. Arabic Logic: Ibn al-Tayyb's Commentary on Porphyry's Eisagoge. Albany: State University of New York Press.

  45. Hallaq, Wael B. 1987. "A Tenth-Eleventh Century Treatise on Juridical Dialectic." The Muslim World no. 77:197-206.

  46. ———. 1990. "Logic, Formal Arguments and Formalization of Arguments in Sunnī Jurisprudence." Arabica no. 37:315-358.

  47. ———. 1993. Ibn Taymiyya Against the Greek Logicians. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

  48. Hasnawi, Ahmad. 2001. "Topic and Analysis: the Arabic Tradition." In Whose Aristotle? Whose Aristotelianism?, edited by Sharples, Robert W., 28-62. Aldershot: Ashgate.

  49. Hasnawi, Ahmad, and Hodges, Wilfrid. 2016. "Arabic Logic up to Avicenna." In The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Logic, edited by Novaes, Catarina Dutilh and Read, Stephen, 45-66. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  50. Hodges, Wilfrid. 2018. "Two early Arabic applications of model-theoretic consequence." Logica Universalis no. 12:37-54.

    Abstract: "We trace two logical ideas further back than they have previously been traced. One is the idea of using diagrams to prove that certain logical premises do—or don’t—have certain logical consequences. This idea is usually credited to Venn, and before him Euler, and before him Leibniz.We find the idea correctly and vigorously used by Abū al-Barakāt in 12th century Baghdad. The second is the idea that in formal logic, P logically entails Q if and only if every model of P is a model of Q. This idea is usually credited to Tarski, and before him Bolzano. But again we find Abū al-Barakāt already exploiting the idea for logical calculations.

    Abū al-Barakāt’s work follows on from related but inchoate research of Ibn Sīnā in eleventh century Persia. We briefly trace the notion of model-theoretical consequence back through Paul the Persian (sixth century) and in some form back to Aristotle himself."

  51. Inati, Shams. 1996. "Logic." In History of Islamic Philosophy, edited by Nasr, Seyyed Hossein and Leaman, Oliver, 802-823. New York: Routledge.

  52. Karabela, Mehmet Kadri. 2010. The Development of Dialectic and Argumentation Theory in Post-classical Islamic Intellectual History, McGill University.

  53. King, Daniel. 2013. "Grammar and logic in Syriac (and Arabic)." Journal of Semitic Studies no. 58:101-120.

    Abstract: "In order to advance the debate surrounding the origins and background of the Arabic grammatical tradition, we offer an exploration of the Syriac grammatical tradition with a focus on the interdisciplinarity it shared with the study of logic. The essay demonstrates that the essentialist view of grammar adopted by many Greek thinkers led to the working assumption that logic and grammar were virtually the same discipline, and that the Syrians shared this view of things and transmitted it to Arab scholasticism. A number of philosophers and grammarians are explored with a view to demonstrating this point.

    Scholasticism in the Late Antique Near East was a cross-linguistic phenomenon which never respected the boundaries we like to draw between Greek, Syriac, Hebrew, and Arabic worlds. Arabic grammar grew out of this background, while being driven by its own internal genius."

  54. Kleven, Terence. 2016. "Rhetoric, Poetics, and the Organon." In The Routledge Companion to Islamic Philosophy, edited by Taylor, Richard C. and López-Farjeat, Luis Xavier, 82-99. New York: Routledge.

  55. Kukkonen, Taneli. 2005. "“The Impossible, insofar as it is possible”: Ibn Rushd and Jean Buridan on Logic and Natural Theology." In Logik und Theologie. Das Organon im arabischen und im lateinischen Mittelalte, edited by Perler, Dominik and Rudolph, Ulrich, 447-467. Leiden: Brill.

  56. Lagerlund, Henrik. 2008. "The Assimilation of Aristotelian and Arabic Logic up to the Later Thirteenth Century." In Handbook of the History of Logic, Volume 2: Mediaeval and Renaissance Logic, edited by Gabbay, Dov M. and Woods, John, 281-346. Amsterdam: Elsevier North-Holland.

  57. ———. 2009. "Avicenna and Tūsī on Modal Logic." History and Philosophy of Logic no. 30:227-239.

  58. ———. 2011. "Logic, Arabic, in the Latin Middle Ages." In Encyclopedia of Medieval Philosophy. Philosophy Between 500 and 1500, edited by Lagerlund, Henrik, 692-695. Dordrecht Springer.

  59. Lameer, Joep. 1996. "The Organon of Aristotle in the Medieval Oriental and Occidental Traditions." Journal of the American Oriental Society no. 116:90-98.

    Abstract: "In this review article of Charles Burnett's edition of Glosses and Commentaries on Aristotelian Logical Texts: The Syriac, Arabic and Medieval Latin Traditions, the focus will be on the two contributions which concern the medieval Arabic tradition, whereas my comments on the Syriac and medieval Latin sections will be of a more succinct and marginal character. In his "Remarques sur la tradition arabe de L'Organon d'apres le manuscrit Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, ar. 2346," Henri Hugonnard-Roche argues, against Richard Walzer, that a significant part of the marginal and interlinear glosses and notes to the Arabic translations of the Organon as contained in this famous manuscript are not merely philological, but constitute evidence of a difference in understanding the logic of Aristotle. Challenging though it is in proposing a new perspective, the majority of the examples given by Hugonnard-Roche do not support this thesis, as I will venture to show. My comments on Dimitri Gutas' "Aspects of Literary Form and Genre in Arabic Logical Works" are of a more complementary character, with a special emphasis on al-Farabi. A complete listing of the surviving copies of epitomes of Ibn al-Tayyib's commentaries on the Organon is also given."

  60. ———. 2013. "Ibn Ḥazm' Logical Pedigree." In Ibn Ḥazm of Cordoba: The Life and Works of a Controversial Thinker, edited by Adang, Camilla, Fierro, Maribel and Schmidtke, Sabine, 417-428. Leiden: Brill.

  61. Larkin, Margaret. 1982. "Al-Jurjani's Theory of Discourse." Alif: Journal of Comparative Poetics no. 2:76-86.

  62. Leaman, Oliver. 1997. "Logic and language in Islamic philosophy." In Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy, edited by Carr, Brian and Mahalingam, Indira, 950-954. London: Routledge.

  63. ———. 2000. "Islamic Philosophy and the Attack on Logic." Topoi no. 19:17-24.

  64. ———. 2006. "Logic and Islamic Philosophy." In The Biographical Encyclopedia of Islamic Philosophy, edited by Leaman, Oliver, 290-302. New York: Bloomsbury Academic.

  65. Mahdi, Muhsin. 1970. "Language and Logic in Classical Islam." In Logic in Classical Islamic Culture, edited by von Grunebaum, Gustave E., 51-83. Wiesbaden: Ottto Harassowitz.

    Reprinted in Ramzi Baalbaki (ed.), The Early Islamic Grammatical Tradition, Aldershot: Ashgate 2007 and New York: Routledge 2016.

  66. Margoliouth, David Samuel. 1905. "The Discussion between Abu Bishr Matta and Abu Sa'id al-Sirafi on the Merits of Logic and grammar." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society:79-129.

  67. Marmura, Michael E. 1990. "The Fortuna of the "Posterior Analytics" in the Arabic Middle Ages." Acta Philosophica Fennica no. 48:85-103.

    "The entry of the "Posterior Analytics" (translated to Arabic early in the 10th century) into medieval Islam marked a turning point in the development of Arabic philosophy. Its precepts became part of the texture of Arabic philosophical discourse as the world came to be perceived through the medium of logical connections, expressed in the language of middle terms. Al-Farabi (d. 950), developed his essentially Platonic political philosophy within the framework of Aristotle's demonstrative ideal. It had immense influence on Avicenna (d. 1037), who expanded on its precepts.

    But it was also influenced by its new Islamic cultural environment. Avicenna included among the premises of demonstration, statements of individual historical events known through innumerable corroborative reports, deemed certain by the Islamic theologians; and the theologian Ghazali (d. 1111), sought to render its canons operative within his non-Aristotelian (occasionalist) world view."

  68. Mas, Ruth. 1998. "Qiyās: a Study in Islamic Logic." Folia Orientalia no. 34:113-128.

  69. Miller, Larry B. 1985. Islamic Disputation Theory: The Uses and Rules of Argument in Medieval Islam, Princeton University.

  70. ———. 1989. "A Brief History of the Liar Paradox." In Of Scholars, Savants, and their Texts: Studies in Philosophy and Religious Thought. Essays in Honor of Arthur Hyman, edited by Link-Salinger, Ruth, 173-182. Bern: Peter Lang.

  71. Movahed, Zia. 2010. "De re and de dicto modality in the Islamic traditional logic." Sophia Perennis no. 2:5-19.

  72. Mufti, Ali. 2008. "A Statistical Portrait of the Resistance to Logic by Sunni Muslim Scholars Based on the Works of Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti (849-909/1448-15)." Islamic Law and Society no. 15:250-267.

    Abstract: "On the basis of my analysis of four works composed by al-Suyūṭi, I argue that hostility to logic was a predominant feature of Sunni scholarship, especially during the 13th, 14th, and 15th centuries. Logic was condemned by distinguished Sunni scholars in Valencia, Fez, Aleppo, Iraq, and Mecca, but especially in Egypt and Syria. This conlusion confirms Goldziher's argument that resistance to logic started already in the 2nd/8th century and increased in the 13th and 14th centuries; and disconfirms al-Rouayheb s argument that opposition to logic was never predominant among Muslim Sunni scholars."


    I. Goldziher, "Die Stellung der alten Orthodoxie zu den antiken Wissenschaften," in Gesammelte Schriften (1970) vol. 5, 357-400 (originally published in Abhandlungen der konig. Preuss. Akademie der Wissenschaften [1915-1916], 3-46).English translation by Merlin L. Swartz, "The Attitude of Orthodox Islam toward the Ancient Sciences,"' in Studies on Islam (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981), 185-215.

    Khaled el-Rouayheb, "Sunni Muslim Scholars on the Status of Logic, 1500-1800," Islamic Law and Society 11,2 (2004), 213-232.

  73. Rescher, Nicholas. 1962. "Some Arabic Technical Terms of Syllogistic Logic and their Greek Originals." Journal of the American Oriental Society no. 82:202-204.

  74. ———. 1963. "Al-Kindi's Sketch of Aristotle's Organon." The New Scholasticism no. 37:44-58.

    Reprinted as Chapter 2 in N. Rescher, Studies in the History of Logic, Frankfurt: Ontos Verlag 2006, pp. 15-27.

  75. ———. 1964. The Development of Arabic Logic. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

    Contents: Preface 7; Introduction 11;

    Part I. Survey of Arabic Logic

    1. The First Century of Arabic Logic 15; 2. The First Flowering of Arabic Logic 33; 3. The Century of Avicenna 48; 4. The Century of Averroes 55; 5. The Clash of the Schools 64; 6. The Period of “Reconciliation” and The Age of Schoolmasters 73; Conclusion 82;

    Part II. Register of Arabic Logicians

    Contents [166 names] 87; The Register 93;

    General Bibliography 256; Index 259-262.

  76. ———. 1964. Studies in the History of Arabic Logic. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

    "In the ten essays brought together in this volume, the author discusses different aspects and problems related to the intellectual history of Islam and centered around logical and philosophical issues. The guiding line is that Arabic logic is entirely Western and has nothing to do with "oriental philosophy." Six of the essays have appeared in different journals. The first essay, written especially for this volume, gives a brief account of the history of Arabic logic. The other essays deal with particular texts and problems related to the writings of such thinkers as al-Farabi, al-Kindi, Avicenna, Abu 'l-Salt of Denia, Averroes. The book contains extensive bibliographical references, documentary and critical notes."

  77. ———. 1967. Temporal Modalities in Arabic Logic. Dordrecht: Reidel.

  78. ———. 1968. Studies in Arabic Philosophy. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

  79. ———. 2006. Studies in the History of Logic. Frankfurt: Ontos Verlag.

    Table of Contents: Preface; 1. On Aristotle’s Apodeictic Syllogisms 1; 2. Al-Kindi’s Sketch of Aristotle’s Organon 15; 3. A Ninth-Century Arabic Logician on: Is Existence A Predicate? 29; 4. Avicenna on the Logic of “Conditional” Propositions 33; 5. Avicenna on the Logic of Questions 47; 6. The Arabic Theory of Temporal Modal Syllogistic 55; 7. Choice Without Preference: The Problem of “Buridan’s Ass” 91; 8. Leibniz’s Interpretation of his Logical Calculi 141; 9. Russell and Modal Logic 159; 10. Default Reasoning 173; Index of Names 185-190.

  80. Sabra, A. I. 1965. "A twelfth-century defence of the fourth figure of the syllogism." Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes:14-28.

    Reprinted as Essay XII in A. I. Sabra, Optics, Astronomy and Logic Studies in Arabic Science and Philosophy, Aldershot: Variorum 1994.

  81. Schöck, C. 2008. "Name (ism), Derived Name (ism mushtaqq) and Description (waṣf) in Arabic Grammar, Muslim Dialectical Theology and Arabic Logic." In The Unity of Science in the Arabic Tradition: Science, Logic, Epistemology and their Interactions, edited by Rahman, Shahid, Street, Tony and Tahiri, Hassan, 329-360. Dordrecht: Springer.

  82. Schoeck, Cornelia. 2016. "Major Issues and Controversies of Arabic Logic: Preface." Oriens no. 44:179-180.

  83. Spevack, Aaron. 2010. "Apples and Oranges: The Logic of the Early and Later Arabic Logicians." Islamic Law and Society:159-184.

    Abstract: "In a recent article in Islamic Law and Society, Khaled El-Rouayheb proposed that opposition to logic was probably never the predominant view of Sunni Muslim scholars.

    El-Rouayheb also expressed doubt in the position of later scholars who argued that there existed two approaches to the study of logic, one whose permissibility was debated, and another whose permissibility was agreed upon. In response to El-Rouayheb,

    Mufti Ali argued in his own article that opposition to logic was the predominant view of Sunni Muslim scholars between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries. In this article, I argue, pace Ali, that there is merit to the claim that neither opposition to, nor support for, logic achieved predominance, especially between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries, even if favorable opinions came to be viewed as the soundest position in later centuries. I also argue, pace El-Rouayheb, that there is merit to the proposition that there are two distinct approaches to logic, one that mixes objectionable elements from Greek philosophy, and one that, in varying degrees, may have rid itself of these elements. Additionally, I argue that the thirteenth through fifteenth centuries may have marked a transitional period during which the two approaches became more distinct, although some jurists who ruled on logic did not always notice, or acknowledge, the distinction."

  84. Street, Tony. 2000. "Towards a History of Syllogistic after Avicenna: Notes on Rescher's Studies on Arabic Modal Logic." Journal of Islamic Studies no. 11:209-228.

  85. ———. 2004. "Arabic Logic." In Handbook of the History of Logic, Volume 1: Greek, Indian and Arabic Logic, edited by Gabbay, Dov M. and Woods, John, 523-596. Amsterdam: Elsevier North-Holland.

  86. ———. 2005. "Logic." In The Cambridge Companion to Arabic Philosophy, edited by Peter, Adamson and Taylor, Richard C., 247-265. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  87. ———. 2005. "Faẖraddìn ar-Ràzì’s Critique of Avicennan Logic." In Logik und Theologie. Das Organon im arabischen und im lateinischen Mittelalte, edited by Perler, Dominik and Rudolph, Ulrich, 99-116. Leiden: Brill.

  88. ———. 2008. "Rescher on Arabic Logic." In Rescher Studies: A Collection of Essays on the Philosophical Work of Nicholas Rescher, edited by Almeder, Robert, 309-324. Frankfurt: Ontos Verlag.

  89. ———. 2014. "Afḍal al-Dīn al-Khunājī (d. 1248) on the conversion of modal propositions." Oriens no. 42:454-513.

  90. ———. 2021. "The Reception of Pointers 1.6 in Thirteenth-Century Logic: On the Expression’s Signification of Meaning." In Philosophy and Language in the Islamic World, edited by Germann, Nadja and Najafi, Mostafa, 101-128. Berlin: de Gruyter.

  91. Thom, Paul. 2010. "Abharī on the Logic of Conjunctive Terms." Arabic Sciences and Philosophy no. 20:105-117.

    Abstract: "The Persian philosopher Aṭīr al-Dīn al-Abharī (d. 1265), in his Revealing Thoughts, sketches out several different logics of propositions containing complex terms such as ‘writing man’. I will outline his results and the criticisms of them made by Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī (d. 1274) in his Setting the Scale for an Evaluation of “Revealing Thoughts”, and I will compare Abharī’s various logics of complex terms with modern treatments."

  92. Türker, Sadik. 2007. "The Arabico-Islamic Background of al-Farabi's Logic." History and Philosophy of Logic no. 28:183-255.

  93. van Ditmarsch, Hans P. 2008. "Logical Fragments in Ibn Khaldūn’s Muqaddimah." In The Unity of Science in the Arabic Tradition: Science, Logic, Epistemology and their Interactions, edited by Rahman, Shahid, Street, Tony and Tahiri, Hassan, 281-294. Dordrecht: Springer.

  94. Versteegh, Cornelis H.M. 1977. Greek Elements in Arabic Linguistic Thinking. Leiden: Brill.

    Table of Contents: Preface VII-XI; I. The first contact with Greek grammar 1; II. Articulated sound and its meaning 19; III. The theory of grammatical categories 38; IV. The usul an-nahw and Greek empiricist medicine 90; V. The period of the two schools 107;

    VI. The influence of Greek logic 113; VII. The use of logic in grammar 128; VIII. The Mu'tazila 149; IX. The origin of speech 162; X. The Stoic component in the theory of meaning 178; Diagram of the most important Arabic grammarians 192; List of abbreviated titles 196; Arabic, Greek, Hebrew, Latin authors quoted 205; Originals of the Arabic and Greek texts quoted in English translation 209; Indexes: Personal names 230; Arabic terms 234; Greek terms 238; Latin terms 242; Hebrew and Syriac terms 243.

  95. Versteegh, Kees. 2000. "Grammar and Logic in the Arabic Grammatical Tradition." In History of the Language Sciences: An International Handbook on the Evolution of the Study of Language from the Beginnings to the Present. Vol. I, edited by Auroux, Sylvain, Koerner, E.F.K., Niederehe, Hans-Josef and Versteegh, Kees, 300-306. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

  96. von Grunebaum, Gustave E., ed. 1970. Logic in Classical Islamic Culture. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.

  97. Walbridge, John. 2000. "Logic in the Islamic Intellectual Tradition: The Recent Centuries." Islamic Studies no. 39:55-75.

  98. ———. 2003. "A Nineteenth-Century Indo-Islamic Logic Textbook." Islamic Studies no. 42:687-693.

  99. ———. 2011. God and Logic in Islam: The Caliphate of Reason. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  100. Widigdo, Mohammad Syifa Amin. 2018. "Aristotelian Dialectic, Medieval Jadal, and Medieval Scholastic Disputation." The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences no. 35:1-24.

    Abstract: "This article argues that medieval Christian and Muslim scholarship employed Greek dialectic to differing purposes. Greek dialectic aims to defeat an opponent by exposing logical contradictions; Christian scholarship claims to use the dialectic to search for the truth in a pedagogical setting; and Muslim scholarship employs it to arrive at the truth with a degree of certainty. As a result, this article further argues, Greek dialectic in Christian and Muslim contexts undergoes some modifications. In the Christian context, dialectic serves a didactical purpose, which is to find the truth that resides in the mind of the teacher. In the Islamic context, Greek dialectic is employed to find epistemological (qaṭcī) or psychological (ghalabat al-ẓann) certainty in religious knowledge."